International, African and southern African instruments and institutions driving and inhibiting reform.
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A number of international institutions and instruments are both driving and inhibiting reform. United Nations conventions play an important role in creating a moral framework for reform. However, ratification is mostly a slow process and the enforcement of provisions is discretionary and inconsistent. The World Bank took the first steps to exclude companies that were found guilty of corruption, from tenders. Financial support to developing countries to bring corrupt companies to court will strengthen the World Bank’s contribution. The Council of the Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development provides much needed access to a powerful database on corruption and good governance. The World Trade Organisation is indirectly supporting corruption by not enforcing the reduction of subsidies, that cause an unlevelled playing field. The International Monetary Fund can become a clearinghouse for allegations of corruption. The Millennium Development Account gives countries that qualify for financial support a say in aid-funded programmes and hold them accountable for achieving results, paving the way for increased accountability towards good governance. The International Chamber of Commerce is concerned about the provisions in the United Nation’s Convention Against Corruption that is discretionary, and hampers development of binding and consistent international rules. These concerns need to be turned into action.